Through such methods and discoveries as linear perspective, oil painting, lively characterization, balanced composition, chiaroscuro, and careful depictions of the beautiful human bodyís physical anatomy, Italian and Northern European artists greatly increased the realism of paintings and sculpture during the Renaissance (c. 1400 Ė1520) before decreasing realism for clarity or emotional effect in later periods.


Filippo *Brunelleschi (1377-1446):Discovered mathematical laws of linear perspective; can now systematically represent on 2-D surfaces 3-D objects using vanishing point concept.Reworks classical art conventions for such designs as the dome for Florenceís cathedral, Pazzi Chapel.


*Masaccio (1401-28):Applies linear perspective to The Holy Trinity mural, first time used.


Leone Alberti (1404-72):Theorist on art, esthetics.Argues for using such values balance, dignity, control, harmony in architecture and painting; wants to restore/rework classical artís conventions, orders, etc.


*Donatello (c. 1386-1466):Sculptor, carefully observes anatomy, uses knowledge in statues like St. George, David; revives male nude and equestrian statues; Lively depiction, not balanced & symmetrical, in Herodís Feast relief.


Jan *Van Eyck (c. 1390-1441):Northern (the Netherlands/Belgian) artist.Main discoverer of oil painting, uses painstaking build-up of details to achieve realism.The Betrothal of the Arnolfini, Ghent altar piece.


Italian Renaissance artists emphasize using mathematical perspective, bold outlines, and masterful depicting the beautiful human bodyís anatomy, use Classical art conventions more.Northern painters tend to emphasize carefullydepicting the beautiful surface of things, such as fabric, flowers, jewels; like to use symbolism, departed more slowly from Gothic art conventions, landscapes more important to.


Sandro *Botticelli (1446-1510):Has harmonious patterns, ideal of beauty, mastered both types of perspective.Uses pagan/Classical subjects, helps to make female nudes artistic subjects again.Birth of Venus, Primavera.


*Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519):Did scientific investigation, experiments, in order to improve art; didnít just copy Classical/Gothic past.Puts realism, balanced design yet drama into The Last Supper.Uses sfumato (darkness) to soften background and outlines in Mona Lisa, adds mystery, optical illusion effects.


*Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564):Mainly sculptor by nature, but painted Sistine Chapelís ceiling.Studied human anatomy extremely carefully, could realistically portray different poses from different angles.The Last Judgment, Pieta.Becomes Mannerist in time.


*Raphael Santi (1483-1520):Painter, gracefully depicted subjects; ideal human beauty and spartial harmony balanced.Sistine Madonna, The School of Athens, The Nymph Galatea.


Giorgione (c. 1477-1510):Storytelling removed from The Tempest, recreates air before storm with color, light.Important in promoting landscapes, female nudes as subjects.


*Titian (c. 1488-1576):Painter, uses color to have unity instead of strict symmetry, theatrical natural lighting, graceful.Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple.


Northern/Dutch painters:


*Albert Durer (1471-1528):Northern painter, early self-portraits; talented at engravings.


Matthias Grunewald (c. 1460-1528):Harsh realism, beauty vs. realism trade-off, influenced by Late Gothic heavily still.


Hieronymus *Bosch (c. 1450-1516):Strange fantastic paintings, very detailed, sweeping landscapes.The Garden of Earthly Delights.

Mannerism:Departs from Classical realism in art.


Pieter *Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569):Chooses landscapes, folk narratives, country life scenes; more secular in work.Peasants in Wedding Dance.


Parmigianino (1503-1540):Early mannerist, less realism, creates ambiguity, distortion.An eccentric compositions in Madonna with Long Neck.Opposes Classical ideals.


*El Greco (1541-1614):Mannerist, realism in paintings combined with symbolism, illusion.The Burial of Count Orgaz.


*Palladio (1508-1580):Villa Rotonda looks Classical (very symmetrical) but isnít in spirit (four porches!)Design ideas commonly copied.


Tintoretto (1518-1594):Likes color, shadows used for dramatic lighting effects, emotional style, less precise in painting.The Last Supper.


Baroque:Reaction back to more realism, more true-to-life.


*Caravaggio (1573-1610):More realistic than Mannerists, liked using chiaroscuro, eliminated landscape backgrounds, emphasized drama, stirring emotions.


Velazquez (1599-1660):Toned down Florid Baroque style, less use of chiaroscuro, contrasts not as strong.Illusion in Las Meninas.


Peter Paul *Rubens (1577-1640):Known for (plump) female nudes, overall sensuous style.Liked using color, less depth for human figures placed in paintings, uses chiaroscuro.


*Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669):Of Dutch school, uses lighting subtly and dramatically, forceful expressiveness, uses emotions as expressed by ordinary people (his models).The Night Watch, Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp.