Romans: Concerned with real world, what is, not what could be or should be; Greeks concerned with ideal situations. Doryphoros (Text, p. 202) vs. Hadrian’s bust (head and shoulders, text, p. 297, or picture of Pompey, put on overhead). Romans’ realism in busts, even of emperors, include warts and wrinkles. Romans build roads, bridges, aqueducts; Greeks build philosophical systems, discuss poetry. Rome: Land power, struggles shaped character, loyalty to home, family, no mercy to vanquished, willing to kill or be killed, endurance, discipline, being practical necessary for battlefield success, etc.
Greeks create; Romans happy to copy, better at portraits, historical narrative. “Does it do what it is supposed to do?” vs. “Is it beautiful?” Romans good at problem solving, engineering.
Greek education, more balanced than Roman, emphasized imagination, creativity, higher level philosophy and math. Develop whole person/man ideal. Sports part of balance, strong body and mind ideal.
Rome: learn 3R’s to be better citizen. Conformity, obedience, less educated even ideally, obey elders, and state, have endurance devotion.
Greek Olympiads: honor, truce from war, grace/how done, not just speed, winning, fair play requirement.
Roman spectacles: mass entertainment, crudeness, brutality, effective, perfuming done event, gifts handed out, Coloseum seated 50,000. Rome’s population 1.2 million 2nd century A.D.
Cincinnatus (c. 519-439 b.c.): Roman general, statesman. Model of patriotism, loyalty to Rome. Modesty, gave up power voluntarily. Senate in 458 b.c. gave him power to run army in order to save another Roman army. 439 b.c., got absolute power from Senate, but kept it only 21 days. Went back to plowing!
T.R. Glover, classicist: “Rome is famed for its drains; Greece for its brains.”
Vergil: “Captive Greece had begun to take her rude conqueror captive.” Like Mongols and Manchus in China.
Cato the Elder: Never kissed wife but during thunder. Felt slaves mere machines, treated them cruely, get rid of when useless and old. Yet never struck wife or son. Tutored own son. Lived and ate on own farm. Wrote De Agricultura, practical book on farming.
Incorruptible: Took no bribes, didn’t use office or military victories to become rich. As censor in 184 b.c., demoted senators, knights for morals; cut public water pipes going to private homes. Contracts put out at lowest prices, collected maximum taxes.
Opposed luxury, cultivation of arts, extravagance; emphasized simplicity. Valued the ability to endure hardship, honesty, courage, strict sexual morality, loyalty to Rome.
Sumptuary law against luxury: 30% tax on clothing, jewelry, furniture, dishes/plates over $6,000 to $12,000 in today’s prices.
Hated Greek culture, wanted laws against Greek philosophers visiting Rome. Says it undermines sturdy Republican morals.
Imperialistic: Wanted to promote Rome’s glory, greatness, end justifies means. “Carthage must be destroyed.”
Etruscans: We can’t read their writing well. Main knowledge of from tombs, text, p. 283 example. Civilized Romans. Non-indo-European language. Herodotus said from Lydia in W. Turkey/Asia Minor. Art, religious practices eastern—Divination using animals’ livers, Romans pickup. Romans dislike their luxurious living, elaborate tombs, high position of their women (carvings of them drinking with men).
Like Sumeria, Mycenaeans, had strong independent city-states in 8th century b.c. Each city independent, like Greeks, why weak ultimately, despite high level of culture. Fairly equal treatment of women, it seems. In 7th-6th century took Rome. Had a powerful navy (like which Greek city-state? (Athens)), unlike Rome, like Carthage.
Tyrrhenian Sea (part of Mediterranean Sea) named for their legend. Lydian king’s son, Tyrrhenus, leads migration.
Civilized Romans: Lictors, Triumphs, augurs, Roman alphabet, arch, triads of gods, temple design. Emperor Claudius: wrote 20 books on.
Legendary Founding (text, p. 233): Romulus and Remus, sons of Mars and Rhea Silvia, daughter of King Numitor. Amulius, evil great uncle, had twins put in basket in Tiber River. Rescued by wolf, killed Amulius as adults, restored Numitor to throne. Romulus killed Remus (too light-hearted) for ridiculing the building of Rome’s walls. Romulus raised army, supplied with Sabine wives (mass rape). 753 b.c. date of founding, basis for chronology, A.U.C., “from the founding of the city.”
Virgil, Aenid: Aeneas (Uh/NEE/us) founder, Rome founded by Trojans in exile (notice anti-Greek aspect), fleeing Troy’s fall, lead by Aeneas. Duty to press onwards after stop (by storm forcing them) in Carthage. Met Quen Diedo (DI-do), she falls in love with him. Aeneas rejects her, feels he has to do his duty, she kills herself because of unrequited love. He sails on to Sicily, Tiber’s banks.
2nd century b.c.: Italy had 1,000,000 Roman citizens, 4 million Italians, 1,000,000 slaves.
75,000 slaves taken in 1st (264-241 b.c.) and 2nd (218-202 b.c.) Punic Wars. 100,000’s taken in 2nd century. b.c. Rome won: key result: Medieval Europe had a Indo-European culture, not Semitic.
“Bread and circuses,” the Republic’s decline. Dole of grain to Rome’s poor. Gaius Grachus’s innovation (subsidized price). Money up, duty down, corruption up, old total authority of the father down. Would judge some of the rich guilty, took their property, for that reason alone.
Verres, governor of Sicily, example: Boasted his objective was to make three fortunes, one to pay off debts, one with which to bribe the jurors in Rome, and one to keep.
Roman public, no taste for tragedy, only crudest comedies, stock plots, same 5 characters.
T. Graccus: Land reform bill. Public lands not actually owned by Patricians, but had had them for a long time. Reassign to poor, landless Romans. Brought bill to Tribal Assembly first, not Senate (vs. usual custom). Patricians got another tribune to veto it, but Tiberius got that Tribune deposed in retaliation. Billed passed, but not ultimately implemented Tried to get reelected (illegal), but senators and their retainers killed Tiberius and 300 of his followers, put bodies in Tiber.
Gaius Gracchus: half-price grain sold to unemployed in city, 123 b.c. Dole system begins. More magnetic in personality, better politician than brother. Wanted colonies for placing unemployed, given citizenship to Latin allies, Buys support of knights but putting them on court for extortion (abused it, conemned those opposed to their extortions) and turning province of Asia over to them, unjust rule resulted there. Lost power by false promises of Optimates’ ultimate decree: Gaius and 250 die. 3000 later die due to commission without trial. No land commission or Cathaginian colony resulted, no land reform.
Populares vs. Optimates (“best people”): Class warfare through parties results.
Marius: Got support of knights, Populares, elected consul to prosecute Jugurthine War in N. Africa. Tribal invasions get him reelected consul. Brings in professional army: Volunteers, without property, long term career, given land if serve full time. Reorganized it tactically, more cohesive in small units, cohorts, maniples, centuries. Not a citizen-army anymore of small farmers serving for short periods. : Elected Consul 7th time after Sulla gone from Rome., who had used his army vs. it (first time, bad precedent, army loyal to commander vs. Rome itself). Marian massacres followed: 5 days and nights in 87 b.c. Jan. 1, 86 b.c., elected consul 7th time.
End: caught between trying to please both Optimates and Populares, proscriptions attack his friends.
Social War (90-88 b.c.): Allies revolt massively, not put down. Latins, Italians given full citizenship by Senate. Makes rebellion largely collapse, Roman victories help.
Mithradates in Asia Minor takes advantage of this mess: 80,000 Italians killed in one day, had treated locals badly.
79 b.c.: Sulla’s proscriptions: has 4700 killed, 2600 of them knights, 90 senators. Sulla wins against Mithradates, gets him to sue for peace. 83 b.c., Sulla returns with army, Optimates side with him. 82-79 b.c., Sulla dictator over Rome.
Cicero: Never really accepted by “old guard” patricians since born to middle class parents. Became a lawyer. Prosecuted Verres, governor of Sicily: sold justice, priesthoods, muncipal offices to highest bidder, falsely accused wealthy people to take their property, worked with tax-gatherers to squeeze out cash. To stop Cataline, Optimates support him for consul in 63 b.c., Cicero wins.
Condemnation of Catline (pp. 369-70, Origins and Ordeals, Hardy: speech against after discovers conspiracy to have poor revolt against rich, massacre Senators and Knights (rich Plebians). Cataline flees, Cicero didn’t have him arrested since he was middle class, Cataline aristocrat, may have felt Optimates wouldn’t believe a fellow Patrician would do such a thing. Letters to Atticus, etc., important in Latin literature, disliked Romans being so anti-philosophical, his countrymen.
Julius Caesar: “Czar,” and “Kaiser” corruptions of his name, “July” named after him. Married at age 19 to Cornelia, daughter of Cinnas, Populares leader. Refused to divorce at Sulla’s order.
Gets money from Crassus—puts on big games to entertain masses, gets their support. Example of stunt of Roman republican political maneuvering: raises (false) red flag on Janiculum Hill in order to have the Assemby of Centuries dissolved to stop Rabirus from getting off from killing an associate of Marius 37 years earlier since the Optimates controlled it.
First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, Caesar. Caesar gets elected consul for 59 b.c., in return gives Pompey, Crassus what they want. Cicero shoots down apparent land reform bill that would aid Crassus especially. Caesar gets own army later. Gaul, Alesia, 51 b.c., wins! Had son by Cleopatra.
As dictator, decreasted dole from 320,000 to 150,000, planned public works, overseas colonies for poor, calendar change. The fear of his become king, led to assassination in 44 b.c., Ides of March. 23 stab wounds, about 60 assassins.
Crassus and Pompey: Caesar’s rivals/associates. Crassus: money made from loans, fighting fires scam in Rome, buying up property at literal fire sale prices.
Pompey: Did divorce, remarry at Sulla’s command, raised three legions, fought populares successfully in Sicily and Africa.
Spartacus (73-71 b.c.): Crassus trained six legions, beat his rebel slave army (70,000 strong). Sp. had won six times before, Rome had wars in Spain, Aegean/Asian area also going on. Pompey and Crassus had 6,000 slaves executed, hung on crosses along Apian Way (analogous to I-94 in Detroit). Pompey, Crassus, initially denied consulship by Senate (constitutional reasons for doing so also), so made alliance with Populares, forced Senate to put them in office. They overturned the Sullan constitution by restoring the power of the tribunes and censors, juries now just 1/3 senators. Crassus killed at Carrhae by horse-mounted Parthians (53 b.c.).
Pompey: Gets rid of Mithrades’ pirates in a mere 40 days after being given 120,000 infantry, 5,000 horsemen. Voluntarily took apart army in 62 b.c., doesn’t march on Rome as Ceasar did in 49 b.c. Pompey loses in 48 b.c. to Caesar at Pharsalus in Greece.
Augustus (“revered one”) (Octavian): Grand nephew of Caesar, only 18 when Caesar died, but acted as veteran politician. Formed 2nd triumvirate with Mark Anthony, who had Cicero killed, and Lepidus. Octavian not an esp. good general, but good at politics. 42 b.c., Jan. 1: 300 Senators, 2000 knights executed by proscription. Then Octavian defeated Brutus, Cassius, Caesar’s assassins, at Phillippi in 42. b.c.
Augustus beats Anthony at Actium (31 b.c.): Cleopatra’s machinations fail. She was subtle, tried to preserve Egypt’s independence and her throne, allied with Anthony, blunt, objective, good soldier but bad politician, both lost, killed selves separately.
Sets up “Principate”: “Princeps,” first citizen, origin of the word “prince.” Republican façade maintained, since didn’t want to be accused of being a king. Civil service based on merit, created pensions for veterans using own money as endowment, added a sales tax, rebuilt Rome (from brick to marble), had army build public works across empire; set up police and fire services in Rome itself. Moral reforms: penalized bachelors, encouraged large families, punished adultery.
Text reading: pp. 268, Ovid’s “Art of Love.”
Cybele/Attis: “The Great Mother”—from southern Asia Minor. In rituals, men would sacrifice selves to Cybele by castrating themselves, become priests (Galli). Standard myth: Queen Cybele loved Attis, a handsome shepherd (analogous to Titanic!) He was unfaithful, made love to a nymph (a minor goddess), which drove her insane. He became so upset by this he castrated himself [or was killed by a boar in a hunting accident, like Adonis], died. Cybele mourned for him.
See text, p. 240: Did he come alive again? Sometimes not even said to be dead, since Ovid said the wounds weren’t fatal. Gunter Wagner: “With one exception that has still to be mentioned, the rest of the version of the myth are at one in telling that Attis died and remained dead. 4th century Firmicus Maternus, influenced by Eleusinian mysteries (Demeter/Persephone). The “resurrected” Attis merely had a preserved body, his hair still grew, and his little finger could move, or being changed into an evergreen tree.
As for Osiris, according to Gunter Wagner, “Nothing is said about a resurrection in Plutarch’s account of the myth. Plutarch reports and criticizes the assertion that Osiris returns to life when the seeds begin to sprout.” Metzer said believers wanted to be buried where Osiris’ body was. Isis (or another deity) reassembled his body, various gods did magical rites to his embalmed body. Lives only in underworld of dead as king.
Mithraism: Mithras born from a rock. Battled with sun, killed the bull which was the source of life for humanity. Mithras, mediator, gave protection against demons. Each day of week controlled by a planet. All souls came from highest level of heaven (7th), lost good characteristics when descended to earth. If do right, join good god, if do wrong, sentenced to suffer forever with the forces of evil. 7 stages of initation corresponded with levels of heaven, had to prove self worthy at each one.
Mithras a judge for each soul, weighed good/bad: Also Savior who helped followers against evil. After death, souls led by Mithras through 7 planets to heaven.
Anti-woman: never initiated into this cult. “Sol Invictus”—Dec. 25 used to honor Mithras. “Invincible Sun.” Planetary week.
321 A.D. Constantine: Venerable day of the Sun. “Let all the judges and townspeople and the occupations of all trades rest upon the venerable day of the sun.” Date for Xmas partially derived from this, as from Saturnalia, which honored Saturn, god of agriculture, would exchange gifts, freed slaves temporarily (ala Carnival, misrule festivals), postponed business and war. Mithras seen as god of light, Greeks identified him with Helios, their sun-god. Winter solstice tradition “Christianized” by Catholic church in 4th century b.c.
Epicurus: Born on island of Samos, c. 341 b.c. Taught in various cities, settled in Athens in 306 b.c. Set up school, surrounded by worshipful students, but still lived simply, ate plain food, enjoyed conversation with friends the most.
Epicureanism: Purpose of life is for each individual to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. What would be the problem with this goal?
“Egocentric hedonism.” Better to seek moderate pleasures than violent ones with “kick backs,” adverse after effects.
Would Epicurus have chosen to get drunk?
Distinguished natural from unnatural desires: Need to eat, but didn’t need to eat caviar. W.T. Jones: “The unnatural desires are a bottomless pit that the wise man will not attempt to fill.”
Problem: Should certain actions be done because they are good despite they bring no pleasure? The self-sacrificing soldier, the older rich man who avoids divorce when could abandon old wife for a younger model. No place for honor, integrity.
Achilles in Illiad: “Let me die forthwith and be avenged on my enemy, rather than survive a laughing-stock and a burden on earth.” Would Epicurus agree?
Repose: Mental peace objective. Corresponds with people withdrawing from society/politics since can’t control everything or influence it much. So many give up, withdraw from competition.
How gain it: Eliminate fear of death and fear of divine intervention. Naturalism.
Atomism: shows no soul, no personal identity survives death. Since death ends only sensation, not to be feared. Science valuable only in ending worry about death, the gods.
Lucretius (96-55 b.c.): Believed fear of death drove all men, haunted them.
Attacked religion, since made men fearful, caused them to do bad things to appease gods, such as Agamemnon’s sacrifice of Iphigenia in order to sail and win vs. Troy.
Stoicism: Founded by Zeno, born on Cyprus, went to Athens about 320 or 315 b.c.
Stoa, “porch,” place where Zeno taught. Zeno influenced by “cynics,” a group of followers of Socrates who strove to be indifferent to all pain and pleasures, including poverty, pain, death not really bad to them then.
Empiricism: Sensationalism—form of object enters mind by the senses. Conceptualism: concepts only general mental abstractions about material objects. Only matter real—even called the soul, god, good and bad material.
Happiness gained by fulfilling, acting in accordance with own nature (analogous to Aristotle’s teleology, but a step further). Knowledge valuable for telling us what our nature and where we fit in the universe. The universe is deterministic, but still not mechanistic since can choose to react to it differently. “Logos,” “nature,” “Providence,” describe a complex but orderly universe.
Stoics built on Aristotle’s idea of nature, teleology. (Can anyone say what that is?) Happiness gained by acting in accordance with nature. Like evaluating oak trees deviating from average, can do with human behavior also.
Universal, natural law concept: Leads to brotherhood of man idea. Christianity also has. Cosmopolis—universal city. Roman Empire influenced and influences this idea.
Natural law concept: Acts immoral intrinsically, not just because God or men say they are wrong. Paul in Romans 2:14-15: “Indeed, when gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature the things required by the law, they are a law for themselves, even though they do not have the law, since they show that the requirements of the law are written on their hearts, their consciences also bearing witness, and their thoughts now accusing, now even defending them.”
Motives, not acts, primary to Stoics. Happpiness not from pleasing senses or overall development of human personality, but from gaining peace of mind [would Epicurus agree?] from accepting how the universe is and therefore becoming indifferent to the course of events.
Rejects emotions: not just channeling or controlling them, or whether they cause good or bad. Ascetic side, moderation no better than excess, since should be indifferent to both.
Romans try to purge Stoicism of exaggerations, still strongly altruistic, ascetic.
Cicero: “True law is right reason in agreement with nature; it is of universal application, unchanging and everlasting, it summons to duty by its commands, and averts from wrongdoing by its prohibitions.”
Reason as the source of morality. A state must have laws in accordance with the eternal law of nature.
Epictetus: Born in Phrygia in Asia Minor. Slave in Rome during Nero’s reign.
More religious version of Stocism—nature as the governor of the universe. Men, since rational, unlike animals, are to live differently from them, shouldn’t just do as the animals do.
Accept what God gives us. In community, individual loses identity. Sacrifice self for the whole (collective) if necessary. Foot/body analogy. Withdraw from world, from politics.
Marcus Aurelius (120-80 A.D., r. 160-180): Wanted peace, yet involved in many battles vs. barbarians.
Meditations: not intended for publication, but like a journal or diary. Like Heraclitus: All is changing, yet done in an orderly fashion. Universe is “one living being, possessed of a single . . . soul; . . . it does all things by a single impulse . . . and . . . all existing things are joint causes of all things that come into existence . . . how intertwined in the fabric is the thread and how closely woven the web.”
Emphasized duty, doing what is according to man’s nature. “Despise not death, but welcome it, for nature wills it like all else.” World-city analogy: nature gives equal treatment under its laws, shouldn’t complain if removed later or sooner.
Stoicism influences law: Rome had two laws, one for citizens, one for all other nations/foreigners. Natural law idea encourages one law for all since all people rational beings that share in the divine reason that rules the universe. “Jus Naturale,” shift from verbal form to intent on validity of contracts.
Affects slaves: conditions under law improve in 2nd century A.D. Father couldn’t totally control family, no longer could kill children or own wife’s dowry.
Romans made Stoic ideal operative.
Neo-Platonism: Plotinus (204-270 A.D.) of Alexandria. Emphasized transcendent, mystical, non-rational side of Plato. Can’t know important truths by rational means. Wanted certainty, and since couldn’t get it by rational means, sought a non-rational means. Otherworldly trend—other world better than this one. Religious orientation, not about morality or theory of knowledge.
Form of the good from Plato’s Republic built on—Plotinus went further, emphasized can’t know ultimate truth by rational means.
Ironic: uses reason to deduce reason can’t know ultimate reality. Mystical experiences are the way to know, not reason. [Compare to contemporary New Age movement/Eastern mysticism].
Emmanation theory: Chain of being idea. One; absolute/first > Nous (Spirit, IQ, divine mind) > Soul (includes all individual human souls) > Forms (including nature, visible world). Value identified with reality, increase in both as go up chain.
Way of ascent: Universe leaves god, just to return. (1) Reincarnation approach—successful rebirths at higher levels. (2) Mystical vision made one with god. Nature divine, just as we are divine in part, so why contemplating nature can help us back. Beauty in any form is a road to the divine. Need to purify soul—leaves it alone, avoid thinking on outside world, turn inward. [Common theme here of all three philosophies]. Text, p. 262, Lucretius; p. 274, Epicetus; p. 275, Marcus Aurelius.
Men portrayed as nude first, women only later (4th century b.c.). May be due to male figure more revealing of anatomy of muscles, the availability of living models at the Olympics. (Athletes competed in the nude). Greek attitude on nudity: Only barbarian won’t strip! Syrian figures of statues had loincloths, but Greek ones didn’t. Greeks felt a certain natural beauty in the human body as is, didn’t associate nudity with slavery, as did the world for millennia before.
Early classical style: Severe formalism, like Egyptian art of Pharaohs (text, pp. 196, 198, 199, 200). What is the facial expression? (Smile). Originally painted, not bare stone.
Classical: Discus thrower (text, p. 201): Plane view from side, as if on wall. Notice how still like Egyptian art.
Kritos Boy (text, p. 198): Shows movement around spine, subtle shifting of weight, not “stiff,” walking. Compare to text, p. 39, flat-footed.
Text, p. 202: What does this look like (clothes)? Wet drapery affect.
Polykleitos (Spear Bearer), by Polykleitos, text, p. 202. Used mathematical conventions to aim for ideal natural proportions. Personified strong, Doric, masculine physicality. Broad shoulder, thick torso, muscular limbs. Very carefully contrived, devised casual pose, weight shift principle at work, allows him to be portrayed as walking in a natural pose; right arm, left leg relaxed, but left arm tensed (holding spear), as is right leg.
Isocephalic convention: Heads at same level (text, p. 203), balance.
Three types of columns (orders): Doric: “Male”, 7 to 1 column. Ionic: “Female,” 11 to 1 column. Ratio equal to height/foot’s length ratio. Corinthian, most elaborate, decorative, the one the Romans preferred. Put up picture of Colosseum, ask which is which.
The problem of corners: wanted triglyph centered over column, yet had to meet at corners.
Corinthian capital, even more slender and tall relatively than the Ionic, using acanthus leaves, a solution to this problem, can be seen equally well from all sides, while Ionic only to be seen from two sides equally well. (Why different?) A way for the capital to make a transition from a circular shaft to a square corner just above (architrave).
Parthenon, “The Virgin’s building,” (Athena Parthenos”), text, pp. 206-7. On Acropolis in Athens. Very large: 228 feet by 101 feet with 34 foot high columns. What kind of columns does it have? (Doric). Architects: Ictinos and Callicrates.
Not quite square, but gives illusion of it. Columns lean inward by 2 ½ inches, 4 corner ones still more, would meet 1 mile up if extended. Also 24 inches closer to other columns compared to gaps between non-corner columns. Doric architecture, but not quite plumb and square.
Phidias: Idol/statue of Athena inside, 40 feet high, made of ivory and gold.
Plato had trouble philosophically with the optical illusion involved, perfection vs. illusion of perfection. Foundation (stylobate) rises 4 ½ inches on long sides to center, 2 ¾ inches to center of other two. (Text, p. 208).
Caryatids, text, p. 211: Female figures used as columns. Found on the Erechtheion (Air/ek/thee/on), another temple on the Acropolis. What kind of order (capital) on it? (Ionic). One swiped by Lord Elgin in 1806, never returned, Greek govt. still complains, demands return.
Late Classical: Softer sinuous look, Aphrodite of Knidos, (text, p. 215), violates old rectangular spare convention of Egyptian statues. (Ask how different from Mycerinus and his Queen, text, p. 39). Compare also 7.49, text, p. 214, Hermes and the Infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles, with Polykletos’ Spearbearer, p. 202, 7.23. Notice muscles of stomach especially.
Nike of Samothrace, text, p. 218, winged victory. Dramatic piece, as if on prow of ship.
Laocoon and his sons, text, p. 221: Ask class for difference from Delphi Charioteer, p. 199, Kritos boy, p. 198. Notice the emotionalism on their faces, compared to the stolidity of early and high classical art.
Achilles Bandaging Patroclos’ Wound, text, pp. 188, 197. What is the difference between the eyes here as opposed to Egyptian art? (See text, p. 41). Amphora with Achilles and Ajax playing dice, p. 194. Is this like p. 41, Egyptian art, or like p. 188, in how the eyes are portrayed?
Roman Realism: (Use overheads). Ask class to compare Pompey, etc. to p. 214. Romans want exact realism often, warts, wrinkles, and all.
Roman arch, keystone at top, text, p. 288. Pier (wall): Mutually supporting pressures between stones help avoid a collapse, vs. post & lintel system (text, pp. 11, 44).
Colosseum (text, p. 293): 50,000 spectators could sit in it. Built by Jewish prisoners—dedicated in 80 A.D.When dedicated, over 100 days as a holiday, 10,000 gladiators fought, 2,000 of them died as well as 9,000 animals died. Arena is 156 feet by 258 feet. Four levels high. Roman arch with a Greek post & lintel decoration as the frame. Vitruvius, architect, 1st century b.c., had these principles: firmness, commodity, delight, which this building followed. 1. Structurally sound. 2. 80 entrances, comfortable seating, unobstructed sight lines (vs. Tiger stadium!) 3. Aesthetically pleasing.
Triumphal arch (text, p. 294). Propaganda ploy, 70 A.D. destruction of Jerusalem commemorated. 50 feet high, 110 feet wide. Symbolism: When Samnites won battle, took 40,000 Romans, made them walk under two spears as posts, one horizontal on top. Had to crawl under stripped to one garment. 321 b.c.—symbolic of going under the yoke.
Pantheon (text, p. 296): Space the emphasis, not interrupted by columns blocking one’s view of the other side (unlike Parthenon inside or Luxor temple, text, p. 44). 142 feet high, 142 feet in diamter. Made of concrete (limestone burned, then water, stones added), remarkable, technique forgotten by medieval world. Done without steel, turned into a church. Oculus at top, only light source, 28 feet in diamter. Plumbing (drains) still works. Built under Hadrian (117-138 A.D.)
Trajan’s column (Emperor, 98-117 A.D.), text, p. 294. Pushed empire to maximum size, born in Spain. 150 scenes carved in 658 foot-long freize. 125 feet high. Commorates his battles in Romania, Hungary. Hard to read as go up higher on the column. Not as deeply carved to avoid shadows obscuring it. Enemies respected on it. Battles portrayed as hard fought. (Realism: Not a propaganda piece).